Finding a Host
The International Olympic Committee is having an extremely difficult time finding a city to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Originally six cities had bids in to host the Winter Olympics. However, due to heavy costs, four out of the six have withdrawn their bids. These four cities are Oslo, Stockholm, Lviv and Krakow. The two cities that remain are Beijing and Almaty. Both of these cities have horrible track records with human rights and are undemocratic. The Olympic Committee finds itself backed into a corner. But, the countries are not the only ones to blame. When Norway pulled its bid, a magazine published an article stating the the IOC (International Olympic Committee) requires that free alcohol be served at the Olympic stadiums and that the members have a cocktail party with the King. These requirements, along with everything else, push the Olympic budget for a country up into the billions. Along with this, 68% of the TV revenues and sponsorships are kept by the IOC. Corruption has plagued the IOC and it has come under scrutiny over the last few years, due to a lack of transparency and extravagance. By having no host for the 2022 winter games, the olympics could be canceled which dramatically brings down the number of people traveling to these cities and therefore could potentially harm the countries economy and the worlds.
Finding a Host: Constructivism Perspective
Norway, a country of high morals and standards, repealed their 2020 Winter Olympic Game bid for one reason; the International Olympic Committee (IOC) was asking the government to go against their own code of conduct in order to host the Games. The IOC demands that free alcohol be served at the venues and cocktails are provided with the King (for IOC members). These demands go against the social identity of Norway and the collective norms of the elite. Norway prides itself on being a nation that upholds strict public social norms that are accepted by all Norwegians. After the Norwegians learned of the IOC policies, they protested which led to Norway repealing their bid. They felt as though the IOC was trying to promote a Norway that went against the elite beliefs and culture. Therefore, Norway pulled its bid for the 2020 Winter Olympic Games because the social identity of the country was not being respected or taken into consideration.
World Cup to the 2016 Olympics
Brazil is going from hosting the 2014 World Cup to being the host country for the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro; in less than two years. The Brazilian government is hoping that, by hosting two major sporting events, their international reputation will rise and push through development projects, which have been neglected for decades. The World Cup drew 90,000 tourists to Brazil, while the Summer Olympics in Rio are estimated to bring 480,000 fans. However, the government needs to learn five lessons from hosting the World Cup; to ensure everything is ready on time for the Olympics. These five lessons being, 1.) Don't over-promise, 2.) Better Outreach, 3.) Control Narrative, 4.) Remember Inclusion and 5.) Just the Essentials. Don't over-promise means that the government needs to reveal a limited details to the public, so if things don't get finished there will be no public out lash. Better outreach refers to the governments ability to communicate with the people and reinstate the benefits of hosting huge sporting events. Controlling the narrative allows the government to only allow the press to focus on the creation of technological developments and other positive aspects, not the unfinished stadiums, crime, corruption and civil unrest. By remembering to include every Brazilian,not just the elite, the government will unite the country and push it towards a path of rehabilitation. Lastly, just the essentials reminds the government to make sure every project is completed by the deadlines. If all these steps are followed the 2016 Summer Olympics will be a success.
Brazilian Sports Politics
Although the Brazilian government wanted the World Cup to show that Brazil was a new, welcoming country that was no longer plagued by economic problems and inequality; the actual picture was of a young democratic nation that did not have firm hold over the public and social services for the people. In the midst of the World Cup, Brazil's dark side came into light. Plagued by corruption, social problems, and nonexistent social services, Brazil showed the world people who were not happy with their government. First of all, the bill for the World Cup, which was spread out among 12 cities-instead of 8 or 9, was larger than any other South American host. This was due to the government building brand new soccer stadiums next to Brazilian slums. Brazilians were outraged as they still do not have proper social programs, such as health care. Another aspect is the close proximity of the 2016 Summer Olympics to the favelas, or slums of Rio de Janeiro. In order to project a welcoming country, police have begun to evacuate the favelas by using torture, killings and disappearances. This shows a country that is in fragments, not united. Despite valiant efforts by the government to improve Brazil's international reputation, the world has seen the disturbing pictures of the internal Brazil.
Russia & the 2018 World Cup
Back in 2010, Russia was selected as the host country for the 2018 World Cup. For Russia, this is the second world sporting event that they will be hosting gin the matter of four years; they also hosted the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics. This will be the most expensive World Cup yet, with the final bill totaling $40 billion, Brazil only spent $4 billion. President Vladimir Putin hopes that by hosting the World Cup, Russia can overcome its war against racism in the country. Those who are not of Russian descent face discrimination, beatings and fines. Another issue is the fans. Russian fans have continued to clash with police and disrupt matches. In order for this type of behavior not to pursue at the 2018 World Cup, the government needs to launch an anti-racism and hooligan campaign; for the safety of athletes and foreign fans. Just like Brazil, Russia is opting to have twelve stadiums instead of the normal eight to nine. With two being located in Moscow. No of the twelve arenas have seen any football since Russia was announced as the host country in 2010. Along with building stadiums, the Russian government is improving hotels, airports and railway stations. However, FIFA is debating on whether if they should limit the number of stadiums to ten, since there are concerns to future use of the stadiums because Russia is not known as a football nation; with the average attendance for the Russian Premier League only being 11,500. Despite tension due to racism, governmental officials do not believe that the protesting will be as bad as in Brazil. This will be due to state-controlled TV stations portraying the protesters as disrupting the sporting event. Most believe that the 2018 World Cup in Russia will be successful; because Russians will learn to be hospitable toward people of all races and ethnicities.